The obesity problem is called global worldwide. According to statistics, one in three adults and one child in eight — the holders of the excess weight. Over the past 10 years the number of overweight people has grown significantly and will continue to increase, experts say. Today obesity is non-communicable pandemic.
Obesity causes doctors concern not only in itself, but in connection with the epidemic of a viral infection caused by COVID-19. Because obesity is a chronic, permanent, progressive disease associated with the violation of the energy balance, hormonal regulation, metabolism, and hemodynamics associated with pathological accumulation of adipose tissue of different localization, leading to the development of disabling complications. It is well known that overweight people have lowered immunity, increased risk of cardiac, endocrine, cancer, joint diseases, psychological disorders and reproductive abilities. What is the relationship of coronavirus and excess weight, as well as how exactly they are to each other, Aifi said the head of the Department of endocrinology of the medical faculty rnsmu. Pirogov Tatiana Demidova.
The relationship of virus and weight
Pandemic coronavirus forced to pay close attention to some categories of patients who have risks of the most severe course of the disease and subsequent treatment with connection to the ventilator. According to the first data that came from China, at risk were elderly people and those who had chronic disease. However, European and American physicians has increased potential risk groups, including people with obesity. For example, 48.3% of “difficult patients” in the United States for the coronavirus — overweight people.
People with obesity are not only more likely to get sick COVID-19, but also show a more severe course and outcome as a result of violations they have immune response and reduce protective cardiorespiratory reserve.
It turned out that people with obesity after exposure to the virus is more persistent penetration into the cell, the virus replicates much faster and longer creates a lot of copies, hitting the large “square” that almost inevitably causes an acute inflammatory response, which received the name “cytokine storm”.
It is this phenomenon, according to experts, starts severe respiratory distress, thrombotic disorders and multiple organ failure.
It is also important to understand that visceral adipose tissue (located in the abdomen) is a highly active organ that affect the immune, endocrine and metabolic homeostasis in the body. In people with obesity-secreting fat cells naturally much larger, and they emit significantly more hormones and inflammatory cytokines. They often already have a local slow inflammation in the hypertrophied fat depots, as is the specificity of its structure. Thus, many viral infections (especially COVID-19) reinforce the effects of cytokines and cause nonspecific inflammation. It is proved that adipose tissue serves as a reservoir for some viruses, such as influenza, HIV and cytomegalovirus, and, according to the latest data, it also can be activated and COVID-19. Fat cells are a critical source of interleukin-6 and its receptors, for which “clings” virus.
Another unexpected feature of SARS-CoV-2 in obesity was the ability of this virus quickly spread from the affected organ in their surrounding fatty tissue — vnutrigrudne, hepatic, renal etc.
This results in more severe damage vital organs. For this reason, these patients may stay longer carriers of the virus, require longer hospital stay and isolation, and greater risk for the occurrence of thrombosis.
There are a number of difficulties with therapy for coronavirus in patients with obesity. Run by people with obesity that need much more often in resuscitation, there are difficulties, because they are more difficult to intubate, like pregnant they are difficult to translate to a position on the abdomen for breathing, they are more difficult to examine with the help of imaging techniques (e.g. computed tomography) and weighing, since the devices have limitations. Moreover, they need special beds and equipment that may not be widely available in ordinary hospitals, and more.
Unfortunately, the current pandemic may further increase the prevalence of obesity. Overeating has become one of the main problems in the quarantine period and for many turned out to have been caused or exacerbated the weight problem.
While in isolation due pandemic COVID-19, many people were experiencing understandable stress and anxiety, boredom or excitement in connection with the situation. And it is this palette of sensations and emotions associated with overeating.
They are forced to consume mainly refined foods rich in fats and carbohydrates that bring pleasure and obesity. Such food is the easiest and most affordable way to cope with stress, to feel better. But for the future it has unfortunate consequences. Overeating, though forced, may start a “cascade dependencies”, which will only aggravate the situation, create a “vicious circle” — food, depression, obesity, eating again. The stress becomes permanent, not allowing to find a way out, increasing the amount and frequency of food consumption, exacerbating the depression, and obesity.
How to deal
Naturally, you should try to pull myself together and start to deal with the problem. The more that each person can assess his condition better and know their needs. And therefore, you should look for a more healthy way to cope with stress. Need to get more exercise, try to fix an unhealthy diet and bring the weight back to normal. This can help the following tips:
1. In the store to buy only low-fat food, better on the list and only what is really necessary.
2. Consume the most diverse food, rich in vitamins, minerals and fiber. This will contribute to the development of healthy intestinal microflora, which in turn will help in the absorption of nutrients and will improve metabolic processes.
3. Avoid unusual diets, since many popular methods, such as interval fasting, cattily, unbalanced and excessively restrictive that nesilevich and can cause health issues.
4. To limit the consumption of sweets, fizzy drinks and alcohol. Sweet you can substitute fresh fruit or berries.
5. To limit the consumption of animal fats. To cook with minimal oil or no (bake, boil, simmer), avoid TRANS fats.
6. To increase the amount of dietary fiber in the diet to increase the consumption of vegetables, fruits (at least 400 g per day).
7. Drinking more water — fluid intake is very important for the normal functioning of the body.