Diabetes Insipidus: Causes, Symptoms, and Risk Factors All

KOMPAS.comDiabetes insipidus is a rare health condition that causes the body to produce large amounts of “insipid” urine, which is colorless and odorless.

Most people urinate 1 to 2 liters per day, but people with diabetes insipidus can urinate between 3 to 20 liters per day.

Reported from WebMD, Here are some important things to know about diabetes insipidus.

The body makes the hormone vasopressin in a part of the brain called the hypothalamus.

This hormone is stored in the pituitary gland and is responsible for telling the kidneys to retain water so that urine is more concentrated.

Also read: CDC: Children infected with Covid-19 are at risk of developing diabetes

When you feel thirsty or slightly dehydrated, the level of vasopressin in the body will increase.

The kidneys will absorb more water and excrete dark colored urine.

However, if you have had enough to drink, vasopressin levels fall back down and the urine that comes out is clear and watery.

When the body can’t produce enough vasopressin, the condition is called central diabetes insipidus.

Anyone can develop central diabetes insipidus, although this condition is not common.

Also read: 100 Years Ago, Insulin First Treated Diabetes Adolescents 14 Years

If the body produces enough vasopressin, but the kidneys don’t respond as they should, the condition is called nephrogenic diabetes insipidus.

In both types of diabetes insipidus, the kidneys cannot store water, so even if they are dehydrated, they will excrete a lot of pale urine.

There are several common symptoms experienced by people with diabetes insipidus, namely:

  • Severe thirst
  • Pee more than 3 liters a day
  • Frequently waking up at night to pee
  • Peeing while sleeping (wetting the bed)
  • Pale and colorless urine
  • Low measurable urine concentration
  • Often drink cold drinks
  • Dehydration
  • Weakness
  • Muscle ache
  • Irritability
  • Risk factors for diabetes insipidus

Also read: Causes, Symptoms, and Types of Diabetic Neuropathy, Nerve Disorders due to Diabetes

Changes in genes that are inherited from parents can make a person more likely to get diabetes insipidus.

This condition may occur in 1 percent to 2 percent of cases.

Diabetes insipidus vs diabetes mellitus

Diabetes insipidus is a different disease from diabetes mellitus.

The only thing these two conditions have in common is that they make the sufferer thirsty and urinate frequently.

If you have diabetes insipidus, the hormones that help your body balance fluids don’t work.

Also read: Frequent Numbness and Tingling, Could Be a Sign of Nervous Disorders Due to Diabetes

Meanwhile, if you suffer from diabetes mellitus, the body cannot use energy from food as it should.

This condition is much more common. About 100 million Americans have type 1 or type 2 diabetes.

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