quote Ministry of HealthNormal blood sugar when (GDS) or without fasting is less than 200 mg/dL.
Meanwhile, normal fasting blood sugar (GDP) is less than 126 mg/dL.
quote Medical News TodayDiabetes is a disease that causes low insulin production.
Insulin is an important hormone that is responsible for helping cells absorb sugar from the blood to use as energy.
When these processes don’t work properly, sugar stays circulating in the blood, causing health problems.
Prolonged high blood sugar levels can damage many areas of the body, including sore feet.
But quoting WebMDIn general, diabetic foot has the following characteristics:
- Changes in skin color.
- Changes in skin temperature.
- Swelling in the feet or ankles.
- Pain in the legs.
- Open sores on the feet that are slow to heal or dry out.
- Ingrown toenails or toenails that are infected with fungus.
- Dry and cracked skin, especially around the heels.
- Unusual foot odor or will not go away.
Also read: Diabetes Insipidus
quote Medical News Today, diabetic neuropathy and peripheral vascular disease are major problems in the feet of diabetics.
quote WebMDDiabetic neuropathy is a condition where sensory nerves are damaged, so that people with diabetes cannot feel heat, cold, or pain in their feet.
Your leg muscles may not function properly because the nerves to the muscles are damaged.
It can cause a diabetic’s feet to not align properly and put too much pressure on one part of the foot.
- Peripheral vascular disease
quote WebMD, peripheral vascular disease is a condition in which poor blood flow in the arms and legs
Without good blood flow, the wound will take longer to heal.
If the individual has an infection that does not go away due to poor blood flow, he or she is at risk of developing wounds or gangrene (tissue death due to lack of blood).
quote Medical News Today, diabetic neuropathy and peripheral vascular disease can cause serious complications in the feet of diabetics, as follows:
1. Skin and bone infections
quote WebMD, cuts or small cuts can cause infection.
Nerve and blood vessel damage, along with immune system problems, make skin and bone infections more likely.
Most of these infections occur in wounds that have not been treated with antibiotics.
The infection can be treated with antibiotics. Severe cases may require hospitalization.
quote WebMDAn abscess is a pocket of pus that appears on the leg due to a bone infection.
A common treatment is to drain the abscess.
One of the effects may require the removal of some bone or tissue.
quote WebMDGangrene is an infection that causes the leg tissue to die.
Diabetes affects the blood vessels that supply the fingers and toes.
When blood flow is cut off, tissue can die.
The usual treatment is oxygen therapy or surgery to remove the area affected by gangrene.
quote WebMD, nerve damage that can weaken the muscles in the legs and cause problems, such as:
- Claw foot
- Protruding metatarsal heads (ends of bones under the toes)
- Pes cavus: feet with an unevenly high arch.
Also read: 5 Skin Changes Due to Diabetes
5. Foot Charcot
quote WebMDCharot foot is a weakening of the bones in the foot that causes it to break easily.
However, nerve damage can reduce sensation and prevent people with diabetes from realizing it.
Diabetics can continue to walk on broken bones and the foot will deform.
quote WebMD, problems with blood flow and nerves make people with diabetes more likely to have a foot injury and not notice it until an infection occurs.
When the infection cannot be cured, creates an abscess or if low blood flow causes gangrene, amputation is often the last resort of treatment.
When should diabetics see a doctor?
quote Medical News Today, people suffering from diabetes should visit the doctor regularly as part of the treatment.
There are also some foot conditions that need immediate medical attention as follows:
- Changes in skin color on the feet.
- Swelling in the feet or ankles.
- Changes in temperature in the feet.
- Persistent sores on the legs.
- Pain or tingling in the feet or ankles.
- Toenails that grow inwards.
- Athlete’s foot: a fungus that causes itching, redness, and cracking.
- Dry and cracked skin on the heels.
- Signs of infection.
Also read: Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus
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